5G for Connected and Automated Mobility: Smart Roads and Vehicles

Course Leader: Dr Naeem Khademi

Home Institution: University of Stavanger, Norway

Course pre-requisites: basic knowledge of computer networking and data communication is desired.

Course Overview
Autonomous and cooperative self-driving cars, AI-powered smart roads, and intelligent transportation systems are no longer dreams of a distant future. Thanks to the recent rapid advances in the fields of Internet-of-Things (IoT), automotive technology, and telecommunication, these dreams are far closer to the realization than ever. A key element that connects the missing dots in order to realize the full potential of all of these technologies, is communication. The upcoming 5th generation of mobile networks (5G) is expected to play a very crucial role in enabling smart services on the road and within the vehicles.
This course provides an in-depth insight on the state-of-the-art communication technologies and paradigms for connected and automated mobility for smart roads and vehicles. It demonstrates how and where such technologies can be employed to offer novel services on the road that were otherwise not possible to realize. In doing so, a special focus will be given to the mobility services that can be offered using 5G mobile technology – e.g. in-vehicle augmented/virtual reality, cooperative maneuvering and road safety services.

Learning Outcomes
• Intelligent services and applications for connected roads and vehicles and their operational requirements.
• Communication paradigms and concepts for connected mobility in vehicular networks i.e., vehicle-to-everything (V2X); system design, Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), requirements, challenges and architectural views
• 5G mobile system architecture and mobility services for Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), use-cases and scenarios. Among other things, this includes familiarity with vehicular edge computing (VEC) and the overview of virtualization/softwarization techniques (e.g., NFV and SDN).
• A plethora of communication technologies that can be leveraged for realizing intelligent roads and vehicles such as NB-IoT, LTE-M, UWB, mmWave, PC5-sidelink, DSRC, IEEE 802.11ax/p/bd, etc. Skills – by the end of this course the candidate will be able to:
• Synthesize or identify the type of novel services and applications that can be offered for smart roads and vehicles
• Analyze the system, service and application requirements and KPIs.
• Match above requirements to the corresponding communication technology and identify the optimal operational ranges and potential challenges.
• Propose possible architectural and/or technical solutions to the existing challenges using brainstorming and Problem-Based Learning (PBL).
• Get familiar with the relevant communication standardization bodies, and will generally be able to find, read, dissect and interpret standard documents (e.g., 3GPP, and IETF).

General competencies – by successful completion of this course the candidate will gain a detailed understanding of the state-of-the-art communication protocols and mechanisms (most prominently 5G mobile) for automated and connected mobility in smart roads and vehicles. The candidate will develop sufficient competence in analyzing the service requirements and KPIs for novel vehicular applications within the cooperative intelligent transport systems. The course will stimulate interest towards student’s potential future multidisciplinary research and development activities in the areas of telecommunication, automotive, and software engineering (e.g., augmented reality and IoT sensor-based). The candidate will also develop an understanding on how smart connectivity and mobility services in vehicles and roads can benefit the society as a whole by providing safety, security and energy/time efficiency.

Course Content
• Introduction to smart roads and vehicles, general concepts and paradigms (e.g., ITS, C-ITS, CAM)
• Mobility and connectivity services in C-ITS for autonomy, safety, road network and energy efficiency, entertainment, etc.         Use cases, service and application requirements. V2X communication paradigm (V2V, V2I, V2N, etc.).
• Introduction on computer communication and networking (e.g., OSI model and TCP/IP stack)
• Vehicular networks (VANETs)
• Communication protocols for vehicular networks (e.g., ITS-G5/DSRC/IEEE 802.11p, LTE-V/sidelink-PC5, 5G, mmWave) and discussion on their strengths and shortcomings and operational limits with respect to the mobility and connectivity services.
• 5G mobile, system and network architecture, ITU’s IMT-2020 vision and the latest 3GPP specification. eMBB, mMTC, and URLLC service categories. Cellular design (e.g. femto-cells, pico-cells).
• 5G New Radio (NR), RAN (including MU-MIMO, beamforming) and 5G core; cloud-native control plane and data plane
• Multi-access edge computing (MEC) and network slicing. Network function virtualization (NFV) and Software Defined Networking (SDN) in 5G.
• C-V2X and 5G V2X for cooperative intelligent transport (C-ITS) systems; comparison with ITS-G5. LTE/5G-sidelink PC5 interface for D2D communication.
• Vehicular Edge Computing (VEC) using MEC, NFV/SDN, use-cases and KPIs in comparison to cloud-core. VEC system architecture for road/traffic safety in CITS.
• IoT sensory infrastructure and networks within smart vehicles and road systems (e.g., LoRaWAN, WAVIoT, NB-IoT, LTE-M, UWB).

Instructional Method
• Direct lecture presentations
• Brainstorming and discussions
• Use case studies
• Group projects
• Multimedia tools
• Kahoot games/quiz

Required Course Materials
The majority of topics are discussed and elaborated during the lectures with limited homework tasks. Required readings are suggested during the lectures. No specific software is required. The following readings provide a general idea behind the course
curriculum and are therefore recommended:
[1] Z. MacHardy et al., “V2X Access Technologies: Regulation, Research, and Remaining Challenges”, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol 20, third-quarter 2018.
[2] V. Mannoni et al., “A Comparison of the V2X Communication Systems: ITS-G5 and C-V2X”, IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (IEEE VTC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2019.
[3] Y. Li et al., “LoRa on the Move: Performance Evaluation of LoRa in V2X Communications”, IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), Changshu, China, 2018.
[4] J. Wang et al., “A Survey of Vehicle to Everything (V2X) Testing”, Sensors, vol. 19, no. 2, p. 334, Jan. 2019.
[5] L. Liu et al., “Vehicular Edge Computing and Networking: A Survey”, arXiv e-prints, July 2019.
[6] 3GPP TS 22.186, “Enhancement of 3GPP support for V2X scenarios”, 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)
[7] 3GPP TS 22.185, “Service requirements for V2X services”, 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP)
[8] “Accelerating C-V2X commercialization”, Qualcomm presentation, 2017
[9] M. Flament, “Making connected cars a reality with 5G (and LTE)”, 5G-CroCo EU project, 2019
[10] N. Khademi, “V2X Communication for Intelligent Transport Systems: Challenges and requirements”, trial presentation, University of Stavanger, Norway, May 2019.
[11] M. Boban et al., “Connected Roads of the Future: Use Cases, Requirements, and Design Considerations for Vehicle-to-Everything Communications", IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, Sept. 2018
[12] J. Guerrero-Ibáñez et al., “Sensor Technologies for Intelligent Transportation Systems”, Sensors (Basel),18(4):1212, 2018.
[13] J. Kenney, “Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) Standards in the United States”, Proceedings of the IEEE. 99. 1162 – 1182, 2011.
[14] K. Samdanis et al. “From network sharing to multi-tenancy: The 5G network slice broker”, IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 32-39, July 2016.
[15] H. Khan et al., “Network slicing for vehicular communication”, Journal of Transactions on Emerging Telecommunication Technologies, May 2019.

Assessment
Start of the course: Explicit information about grading procedures based on UDC directives, overall expectations and specific assignments will be provided to the candidates.
During the course: there will be daily quiz and feedback using Kahoot gamification for learning and other tools in addition to the group projects.
Towards the end part of the course: a final written deliverable report is required that
contains:
a) A short summary of the course contents
b) A brief documentation of open challenges and existing problem statements and potential solution spaces.
c) A short essay on a specific topic and problem statement selected by the professor and the student.
The final examination will address the selected topics and includes the oral presentation and discussion of the deliverable report.